Dr.P.Lovaraju, Professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering & Dean Academics, awarded the "WINNER with the prize money of INR 1,00,000/- in the Education Track" for presenting a paper in the "Hexagon MSC Virtual User Conference-2020" held during 2-3 December, 2020.  

Department Laboratories

AeroDynamics Lab

Aerodynamics is the subject which deals with objects move through air. Object that moves through air is affected by aerodynamic forces. Aerodynamics is broadly classified into low-speed aerodynamics and high-speed aerodynamics. To make students aware of the concepts of aerodynamics, this laboratory is equipped with the following facilities.

FACILITIES

OPEN JET FACILITY:-


The high pressure air from the compressor is stored in storage tanks. High pressure air enters the settling chamber through a tunnel section with a gate valve followed by a pressure regulating valve and mixing length. The settling chamber is connected to the mixing length by a wide angle diffuser. The flow is further conditioned inside the settling chamber by closely meshed grids. The settling chamber temperature is the same as the ambient temperature and the back pressure is the ambient pressure of the atmosphere to which the jets are discharged. A pressure regulating valve is used to adjust the flow to the desired Mach Numbers

Specifications and items available:-

Triple cylinder single stage air-cooled air compressor with 20 H.P motor
Three-dimensional traverse mechanism
Jet Facility set-up
Pressure Reservoirs Two in number (each 150 psi capacity)
U-Tube Manometers and Multi-tube Manometers

Scope: Flow though nozzles, subsonic and supersonic jet characteristics, Jet control techniques, Co-flow jet studies, Single expansion ramp nozzle characteristics, Mixer ejector characteristics, Flow through intakes, Twin jet characteristics and jet impingement studies




Low-speed Wind Tunnel

Wind tunnels are devices which provide air streams flowing under controlled conditions so that models of interest can be tested using them. All the modern wind tunnels have four important components: Effuser, Test- section, Diffuser, Driving unit (consists of fan which runs on motor) and control panel

Specifications and items available
Type:   Low speed, open circuit and suction type
Test section :   300mm X 300mm
Air speed: Up to 35m/sec
Contraction ratio : 9:1
Drive:  Axial flow fan driven by DC motor.
Overall size : 1 m × 2 m × 5 m
Power requirement : AC 3PH, 440V, 15 Amp electrical supply
Material of construction : FRP/MS

Force Measurement by 3-component strain gauge balance, Pressure measurement by Multi-tube manometer, Smoke flow visualization


HELE SHAW APPARATUS

The Hele-Shaw apparatus produces a flow pattern which is similar tothat of potential flow. The flow in the apparatus is actually a highly viscous flow betweentwo parallel plates with a very small gap between them. This equipment basically consists of two parallel plates made of thick,transparent (glass or plastic) plates clamped together along the edgeswith a narrow (about 3 mm) space in between them. The assembly ofthese two transparent sheets kept parallel with an uniform narrow spacebetween them is provided with two small tanks of rectangular cross-sectionat the top end. The tanks are connected to the rectangular slit formed by the transparentsheets by a set of small holes (about 1 mm diameter) arranged in a row. The holes from the two tanks are arrangedto occupy alternate locations for communication. The other end of therectangular slit is made to terminate in a circular hole, by gradually narrowingit after a specified distance from the tanks at the top. One ofthe tanks is filled with water and the other with a dye (say potassiumpermanganate).

WATER FLOW CHANNEL

The channel is made of G.I sheet of 5mm thickness. The width of the test section is of about 280mm and the depth of water will be maintained 8mm. The experimental system mainly consists of four parts. Those are water chamber, wedge, wire mesh, test section and injection system. The water flow channel is said to be one of the best and cheapest techniques to visualize the real flow field around the objects. This facility is used to visualize vortex structure behind the objects, Flow separation point, Reattachment point, zone of influence, vortex sizeetc.,



LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • Calibration of a Subsonic Wind Tunnel.
  • Determination of lift and drag for the symmetrical aerofoil.
  • Determination of lift and drag for the cambered aerofoil.
  • Generation of potential flow pattern over objects using Hele-Shaw Apparatus.
  • Visualization of flow field around a flat plate using open channel.
  • Pressure Distribution over a smooth circular cylinder.
  • Pressure Distribution over a symmetrical aerofoil.
  • Pressure Distribution over a cambered aerofoil.
  • Calibration of open jet facility.
  • Flow visualization in smoke tunnel.
  • Yaw effect on Pitot probe in incompressible and compressible flows.
  • Design  and Calibration of Convergent- Divergent Nozzle
  • Estimation of Mach Number of Convergent and Convergent- Divergent Nozzle.
  • AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES LABORATORY

    Aircraft Structural members include stringers, longerons, ribs, bulkheads, beams and columns. The main structural member in a wing is called the wing spar. The skin of aircraft can also be made from a variety of materials, ranging from impregnated fabric to plywood, aluminum, or composites.To make students aware of various elements of aircraft structural members which are subjected to various loading conditions, this laboratory is equipped with the following facilities.

    FACILITIES

    STATIC MODEL OF SUKHOI – 30, MK 1

    Scale : 1: 6

    Length : 12 feet

    Wing span : 8 feet withmissiles and landing gear

    Material :High grade composite


    STATIC MODEL OF SUKHOI – 30, MK 1

     

    BEAM TEST SET UP WITH VARIOUS END CONDITION :-

    Specification and items available:

    A Sturdy Rigid Frame made of channel construction and designed for supporting Structures Experiments which allows to setup, remove and change experiment modules.

    Two set of Load cells (50 Kg capacity) and digital load indicator with gear box arrangement for fine loading(double side loading)

    A slider arrangement to accommodate 2 dial gauges  with magnetic stand  for vertical  and horizontal deflections

    Different fixtures for mounting different sections of the beam is provided

    Digital micro strain  3-channel strain indicator is provided along with equipment

    Aluminum Sections of: Flat of I”, “Square’, ‘Z’ section, ‘C’ Section, L angle, D section and   thickness 3mm with Strain Gauging is provided along with the set up.

    The dimensions of the equipment is  750 mm x 350mm x 1000mm ( H)


    BEAM TEST SET UP

     

    WAGNER BEAM SET UP COMBINED WITH COLUMN TEST PROVISION

    Specifications and items available

  • A Wagner beam made out of aluminum rivets, ofdimension H =112 mm, B =75 mm, (top) L =650 mm capacityof 5 ton with straingauging is provided along with the setup
  • A sturdy frame with channel construction and gear box arrangement for loading
  • A load cell of 5 ton capacity  with digital indicator
  • 2 Dial Gauges with magnetic stand deflection measurement
  • Digital micro strain indicator
  • WAGNER BEAM SET UP COMBINED WITH COLUMN TEST PROVISION

    FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE (VACUUM BAGGING KIT)

    Vacuum bag moulding is a modification of hand lay-up, in which the lay-up is completed and placed inside a bag made of flexible film and all edges are sealed. The bag is then evacuated, so that the pressure eliminates voids in the laminate.

    Specification and items available:

    Vacuum bagging kit

    Fabrics available: Carbon, Kevlar, Glass

    Epoxy resin with hardener

    FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE

    SHEAR CENTER SET-UP

    This setup is used to determine the shear center of various open and closed channel sections like C-section, I-section, Z-section, L-section etc.,

    Specification and items available:

    • 2 Dial Gauges with magnetic stand deflection measurement

    • Various channel sections

    SHEAR CENTER SET-UP

    LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • Wagner beam-Tension Field beam
  • Verification of Maxwell’s Reciprocal theorem
  • Verification of Castigliano’s theorem
  • Verification of Superposition Theorem
  • To determine gyroscopic couple on Motorized Gyroscope
  • To find the stability and sensitivity of Watt and Porter governor
  • Balancing of rotating and reciprocating masses
  • To determine the time period for simple and compound pendulum
  • Forced Vibration of Beams
  • Bending Modulus of a Sandwich Beam
  • Unsymmetrical Bending of a Cantilever Beam
  • Determination of Shear Center of a Channel Section
  • Buckling Load of Slender Eccentric Columns
  • Determination of Material Properties of a Composite Laminate




  • PROPULSION LAB

    A propulsion system is a machine that produces thrust to push an object forward. On airplanes, thrust is usually generated through some application of Newton's third law of action and reaction. A gas, or working fluid, is accelerated by the engine, and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the engine. To make students aware of various elements of aircraft propulsion systems, this laboratory is equipped with the following facilities.

    LOW-SPEED CASCADE WIND TUNNEL

    The setup is used to test the linear cascade at different speeds. The pressure loss across the linear cascade can be evaluated and the corresponding loss coefficient can be found out. The tests can also be conducted on cascades with different blade cross-sections with different orientations of the blades.Cascade testing of a model of axial compressor blade row and turbine cascade is carried out.

    Specifications and items available:

    • Air velocity      : 20 m/s
    • Material           : Mild Steel
    • Inlet                 : Bell mouth inlet
    • Test section      : 120 mm × 400 mm
    • Fan                  : Axial flow fan  600 mm  Driven by DC motor
    • Drive               : Variable speed Thyristor Controller
    • Motor capacity             : 3HP

    Cascade details:
    Compressor cascade
    No. of airfoils  : 5
    Axial chord      : 12cm
    Aspect ratio     : 1.25
    Total turning    : +/ - 450

    Turbine cascade
    No. of aero foils: 5
    Axial chord      : 10cm
    Aspect ratio     : 1.5
    Total turning    : +/ - 45o
    Instrumentation

      • Prandtle type pitot – static tube with traverse in vertical direction with differential manometer
      • Instrumented cascade blade (pressure tapings of 10 points) connected to multi-tube manometer for pressure distribution study.
      • Speed of the blower fan is measured by digital indicator with sensor.

       

    Low-speed cascade wind tunnel

    AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR TEST RIG (3 STAGES)
    The axial flow compressor test rig is to conduct performance test on the three stage axial flow compressor

    Specification and items available:

    Number of stages    :3

    Inlet section    :300mm diameter

    Outlet section   :180 mm diameter

    Motor capacity    :3 HP AC motor with 2,800 rpm

    Power measurement   : By energy meter

    VFD / AC Drive

    Control panel 

    Axial flow compressor

    PROPELLER TEST RIG
    The propeller test rig is used to measure the thrust produced by the propeller at different speeds. The facility also explores the effect of pitch angle on the thrust force.
    Specification and items available:

        2 Blade/A1uminum propeller with constant pitch and wooden propeller with variable pitch

        Diameter of propeller 600 mm.

        Drive: Driven by electric motor with variable speed of suitable capacity.

        Thrust: The whole assemble of motor is mounted on a linear bearing motion shaft with housing (free suspension) and load cell with digital thrust indicator.

        Speed: by digital speed indicator

        Air velocity: measured by a digital anemometer.

        The Whole assembly is housed inside the circular duct with sturdy base frame. 

        Control panel: consists of speed controlled digital speed indicator, digital Thrust indicator and necessary mains indicator and it is isolated from the test bench.

    Propeller test rig

    HEAT TRANSFER IN FREE/NATURAL CONVECTION OVER AN AEROFOIL MODEL   
    The setup is used to find the free and forced convective heat transfer rate over a given model. The set up is also used to calculate the influence of model orientation and velocity on convective heat transfer rate.
    Specification and items available:

      Uniformly heated airfoil model (NACA 0015) & Span of 150mm(Aluminum) maintained at constant temperature by using heat control. 

      Pencil heater: capacity of 250 Watts.

      Digital temperature indicator & channel selector  with thermocouples on heated surface

      Digital Voltmeter & Ammeter  or digital power meter  for heat input measurement

      Provision for mounting the plate in any position.The whole instrumentation is mounted on - control board/table as a self-contained unit.

     

    MEASUREMENT OF BURNING VELOCITY OF PRE-MIXED FLAME
    This facility enables the understanding of basic combustion phenomenon and also the influence of variable volume flow rate of fuel and air on burning velocity.
    Specification and items available:

      Specially designed burner with wire mesh to generate a laminar pre-mixed flame

      Gaseous fuel from the fuel supply (LPG gas cylinder) through an orifice in to the mixing chamber.

      Gas (LPG) Rotameter with control valve for gas flow

      Air flow Rotameter with control valve for air flow

      Mini gas cylinder is supplied along with the setup

      Glass chamber for clear visualization

    Burning velocity measurement equipment

    Forced convection apparatus

      PROPELLANT PROCESSING UNIT

      The Propellant Processing Unit is used to manufacture the composite solid propellant. By using various equipments available in the lab, we will manufacture a composite solid propellant and also solid fuel for Hybrid rocket engines

      Specification and items available:

      Chemicals

      1. Oxidizers         : Potassium Nitrate
      2. Fuel                 : Sucrose, Sorbitol, Dextrose, Paraffin wax
      3. Metal Fuels     : Aluminium, Magnesium
      4. Binders            : Polyvinyl Chloride, Polyethleyene Glycol
      5. Curing Agents : Toluene 2,4 diisocynate, Trimethyl Propane
      6. Additives        : Ferric Oxide, Dioctyl phthalate, Dimethyl Phthalate, Diphenylamine

      Magnetic Stirrer with Hot Plate
      Chemical Mixer
      Mould
      Mandrels


    List of Experiments-Propulsion Laboratory

      • Study of free jet
      • Study of wall jet
      • Study of free and forced convective heat transfer over an aerofoil.
      • Study of free and forced convective heat transfer over a flat plate.
      • Cascade testing of a model of axial compressor blade row
      • Cascade testing of a model of axial turbine blade row
      • Study of Co-axial jet
      • Studies on sudden expansion jets.
      • Study of an aircraft piston engine. (Includes study of assembly of sub systems, various components, their functions and operating principles)
      • Study of performance of a propeller
      • Burn Rate velocity measurement of pre-mixed flame.
      • Study of Properties of aviation fuel


    Aircraft component Modelling & Analysis lab

    List of Experments

      • Design of joints-bolted, riveted and welded joints
      • Design and Drafting Control Components Cam
      • Design and Drafting Control Components Bell Crank
      • Design and Drafting Control Components Gear
      • Design and Drafting Control Components Push-pull rod
      • Drafting of aircraft wing structural elements
      • Drafting of aircraft fuselage structural elements
      • Three view diagram of a typical aircraft
      • Layout of Control System
      • Static analysis of beams using software packages
      • Static analysis of plates
      • Static analysis of shells
      • Dynamic analysis of beams
      • Thermal analysis of structures

    CARPENTRY AND PATTERN MAKING 

    1. CORNER LAP JOINT 

    2. MORTISE AND TENON JOINT

    3. BRIDLE JOINT ( TEE BRIDLE)

    4. DOUMBLE SHAPE PATTERN MAKING 

    FITTING 

    1. SQUARE FITTING

    2. V- FITTING 

    3. L - FITTING 

    TINSMITHY 

    1. DOUBLE SEAM JOINT 

    2. RECTANGUALR TRAY

    3. CONE

    BLACK SMITHY

    1. S- HOOK 

    2. I- HOOK

    3. FLAT CHISEL

    ELECTRICAL WIRING

    1. WIRING METHODS 

    I. PARALLEL CIRCUIT 

    II. SERIES CIRCUIT 

    2. COMMON HOUSE WIRING CONECTIONS 

    I. CALLING BELL 

    II. FLOROCENT LAMP CONNECTION 

    FOUNDRY

    1. MOLD FOR A SOLID CONE 

    2. MOLD FOR A DOUMBLE SHAPE

    3. MOLD FOR A GROOVED PULLEY



    http://www.lbrce.ac.in/images/faculty/aerospace/aeroworkshop.jpg

    List of Experments

      • Calibration of Venturimeter and Orifice meter
      • Verification of Bernoulli Theorem       
      • Determination of friction factor for a given pipe line
      • Determination of loss of head due to sudden contraction in a pipeline
      • Impact of jets on Vanes.
      • Performance Test on Pelton Wheel.
      • Performance Test on Kaplan Turbine
      • Performance Test on Single Stage Centrifugal Pump.
      • Tension test on mild steel rod.
      • Deflection test on Simply supported beam
      • Compression test on helical spring.
      • Torsion test on mild steel rod.
      • Impact test on metal specimen.
      • Hardness test on metals

    Applied Thermodynamics Lab

    DETAILS OF EQUIPMENT

    1.        I.C. Engines Valve &  Port Timing Diagrams
    2.         Performance Test on Variable Compression Ratio single cylinder 4-Stroke petrol  Engine By using Eddy Current                      Dynamometer
    3.         Performance Test on single cylinder 4 -Stroke Diesel Engine by using Mechanical  Dynamometer
    4.         Performance test on twin cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine.
    5.         Performance Test on single cylinder 2-Stroke Petrol Engine.
    6.         Evaluation of Engine friction power by conducting Morse test on Multi cylinder 4-Stroke Petrol Engine.
    7.         Evaluation of Engine friction by conducting Retardation test on 4-stroke Diesel Engine.
    8.         I.C. Engine Heat Balance.
    9.         Performance Test on Reciprocating Air – Compressor.      
    10.       Performance Test on Vapour Compression Refrigeration Unit.
    11        Performance Test on Air Conditioning Unit.
    12.       Viscosity of lubricants by using Redwood/ Say bolt viscometer Apparatus
    13.       Flash and Fire Point of fuels by using pesky Martin Apparatus
    14.       Determination of calorific value of fuel using calorimeter

    Manufacturing Technology lab

     

    I. METAL CASTING LAB
    1.Pattern Design and making - for one casting drawing.
    2.Sand properties testing - Exercise -for strengths, and permeability – 1
    3.Moulding Melting and Casting - 1 Exercise

    II. Machine Tools LAB
    1.Lathe Operations
    2.Special Machines: Drilling, Shaping, Milling Grinding (Surface Grinding), Slotting
    3.Preparation of Single Point Cutting Tool

    III WELDING LAB
    1.ARC Welding Lap & Butt Joint - 2 Exercises
    2.Spot Welding - 1 Exercise
    3.TIG Welding - 1 Exercise

    IV MECHANICAL PRESS WORKING
    1.Blanking & Piercing operation and study of simple, compound and progressive press tool.
    2.Hydraulic Press: Deep drawing and extrusion operation.
    3.Bending and other operations

    V PROCESSING OF PLASTICS
    1.Injection Moulding